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    Carol
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    Post  Carol Sat May 22, 2021 11:14 am


    SLEEPING SUNSPOT WAKES UP: After nearly a week of somnolent quiet, sunspot AR2824 is flaring again. An impulsive C4.8-class flare during the late hours of May 21st (1928 UT) was followed by an even stronger C6.1-flare on May 22nd (0256 UT). This image from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory shows the UV flash from the C6.1-flare:

    AR2824 is now strobing Earth with pulses of ultraviolet radiation. Waves of ionization rippling through Earth's upper atmosphere have caused shortwave radio blackouts over North America on May 21st (map) and southeast Asia on May 22nd (map). Ham radio operators, aviators and mariners might have noticed unusual propagation at frequencies below ~20 MHz.

    So far there is no sign of Earth-directed CMEs from these explosions; no geomagnetic storms are in the offing. However, stay tuned for updates. Newly-arriving coronagraph imagery from SOHO could change the forecast.


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    Post  Carol Sat May 22, 2021 11:17 am

    SpaceWeather updates 7sisters
    SOLAR CONJUNCTION OF THE PLEIADES: Are you looking for the Pleiades? Don't. It will only hurt your eyes. The Seven Sisters are in conjunction with the sun, high overhead at noon. This short video from SOHO (the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) shows the star cluster passing by the sun on May 21st:

    The Pleiades pass by the sun every year around this time. Human eyes cannot see the close encounter, but SOHO can. Onboard coronagraphs use an opaque disk to block the glare of the sun, revealing nearby stars, asteroids, comets and, in this case, star clusters. Coronagraphs are designed to monitor coronal mass ejections (CMEs), but since the launch of SOHO in 1995 they have proven useful for so much more.

    The Pleiades will be gliding by the sun for some days to come. Join SOHO for a ringside seat. https://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/data/realtime-images.html

    NEXT WEEK: A LUNAR ECLIPSE! On May 26th, the full Moon will pass through the shadow of Earth, producing a total lunar eclipse visible from parts of Asia, Antarctica, Australia and the Americas. For 14 and a half minutes, the disk of the Moon will turn orange--the same color as the core of our planet's shadow. In the USA, this will be a crack-of-dawn event visible from the western half of the country.


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    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Sun May 23, 2021 7:31 am

    Explosive volcanic eruptions triggered by cosmic rays: Volcano as a bubble chamber.

    Recall there is a link between low solar activity (#GrandSolarMinimum) and increased volcanic activity — particularly silica-rich volcanoes are activated by the increased Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs): Grand Solar Minimum Symptoms:

    There are several lessons learned from studying earlier cycles, and particularly good data on very early global cooling events in Europe. See also specific examples, throughout previous cycles in History.

    See also "GSM Symptoms" to read about other characteristics of low solar activity — it's not just agriculture that suffers: hail storms, seismic/volcanic, weakened (meridional) jetstream, electrical activity in Earth's atmosphere (purple aurora, "sprites"), precipitative extremes (hence the "hunger stones" at low river levels, but also the 100-year floods):

    https://wiki.iceagefarmer.com/wiki/Grand_Solar_Minimum_Symptoms

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1342937X10001966


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    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Sun May 23, 2021 1:01 pm

    https://spaceweather.com/ - May 23, 2021

    SOLAR FLARE FRENZY AND CME: Yesterday, May 22nd, sunspot AR2824 unleashed a sequence of solar flares unlike anything we've seen in years. In only 24 hours, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded 10 C-flares and 2 M-flares: movie. The rapidfire explosions hurled multiple overlapping CMEs into space. According to NOAA models, at least one of them will graze Earth's magnetic field on May 26th. The impact of the CME's dense flank could spark G1-class geomagnetic storms and auroras.


    SpaceWeather updates Dynamicspectrum_strip


    The radio burst coincided with an M1.4-class solar flare at 21:30 UT. "This was a very hot and dynamic flare for sure," says Ashcraft. "I was recording audio at 22 MHz and 21 MHz, and my radio spectrograph was operating from 30 MHz down to 15 MHz. Strong solar radio emissions were present at all frequencies."

    This event was so intense, radio operators in the Arctic heard it at midnight. Rob Stammes chart-recorded the outburst from the Polarlightcenter in Lofoten, Norway:


    SpaceWeather updates Spit_strip

    "This wasn't even a particularly strong flare," says Cukas. "It was a C2-class eruption at approximately 15:34 UT." Cukas recorded the event using a homemade solar telescope and a Solar Spectrum brand H-alpha filter.

    "Normally, solar radio bursts can only be received during daylight hours," says Stammes. "Here in the Lofoten islands, the sun is only just below the horizon in May around midnight. So I was able to detect the event even though the sun was not up."

    Astronomers classify solar radio bursts into 5 types. Ashcraft's radio spectrograph is able to determine which ones were present in the May 22nd outburst. "It was a mixture of Type II and Type V," he says. These are caused, respectively, by shock waves and electron beams moving through the sun's atmosphere in the aftermath of strong flares.

    The flaring of sunspot AR2824 continues apace on May 23rd, so more radio bursts may be in the offing.

    SpaceWeather updates Midnightradioburst_strip

    HUGE SOLAR RADIO BURST: During yesterday's frenzy, the sun emitted a shortwave radio burst so loud that "it drowned out lightning static from a severe local thunderstorm," reports Thomas Ashcraft, who recorded the noisy signal using a radio telescope in rural New Mexico. Click to listen to a 100 second sample of the sounds emerging from his loudspeaker.


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    What is life?
    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Tue May 25, 2021 8:38 am

    GEOMAGNETIC STORM WATCH: On May 22nd, sunspot AR2824 unleashed a sequence of solar flares unlike anything we've seen in years. In only 24 hours, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded 10 C-flares and 2 M-flares: movie. The rapidfire explosions hurled multiple overlapping CMEs into space. According to NOAA models, a combined CME will hit Earth's magnetic field during the late hours of May 25th, potentially sparking G2-class geomagnetic storms on May 26th.

    Solar storms are back, threatening life as we know it on Earth - A few days ago, millions of tons of super-heated gas shot off from the surface of the sun and hurtled 90 million miles toward Earth.

    https://phys.org/news/2021-05-solar-storms-threatening-life-earth.html


    _________________
    What is life?
    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Tue May 25, 2021 5:07 pm

    SpaceWeather updates Blood-Moon

    SpaceWeather updates Th.jpg?u=https%3A%2F%2Ftse1.mm.bing.net%2Fth%3Fid%3DOIP

    The wolves will be howling...

    How to Watch Tomorrow's ‘Super Blood Moon’ Eclipse


    On Wednesday, May 26, the Moon will move into Earth’s shadow, resulting in the first total lunar eclipse in nearly two and a half years. Here’s how to seeit, regardless of where you live in the world.

    The eclipse is “super” because the Moon will pass near to its orbital perigee—its closest point to Earth—making it appear large and bright in the sky (the Moon will appear about 7% larger than normal).

    As for the “blood” part of the equation, our large natural satellite should be cast in a distinctly reddish glow, a result of the Sun’s rays being filtered through Earth’s atmosphere; lunar eclipses happen when the Moon passes through Earth’s shadow, but some sunlight manages to reach the lunar surface.

    Watch the Moon turn red during this month’s total lunar eclipse

    A total lunar eclipse generally lasts for hours, requires no equipment to see, and is completely safe to look at — no filter required. There’s no blinding Sun in the sky; all we’re watching is Earth’s shadow fall across Luna’s face. And on the morning of Wednesday, May 26, many observers on our planet’s night side will see that happen.


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    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
    Carol
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    Post  Carol Fri May 28, 2021 1:18 pm

    SpaceWeather updates Bolt_crop

    A 'LIGHTNING BOLT' ON THE SUN: Yesterday, during the late hours of May 27th, the magnetic canopy of sunspot AR2824 became unstable and erupted. The blast expelled a mass of hot plasma that zig-zagged across the surface of the sun like an oversized lightning bolt:

    "Oversized" in this case means ~500,000 km long. The blast channel stretched almost one and a half times the distance from Earth to the Moon!

    Because the debris was confined to the sun's surface, possibly guided and held down by a naturally-occuring tunnel of magnetic arches, there was no significant coronal mass ejection (CME). This was an explosion that failed to launch.

    SOLAR SECTOR BOUNDARY CROSSING: Earth's magnetic field is quieting as effects from the May 26th CME impact subside. The calm should continue until May 30th when our planet is expected to cross through a fold in the heliospheric current sheet.The crossing, called a "solar sector boundary crossing," could trigger minor geomagnetic activity. Solar wind speed: 445.3 km/sec


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    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Mon May 31, 2021 1:06 pm

    SpaceWeather updates C3_splash2


    JUST IN - AN OFF-TARGET CME MIGHT SIDESWIPE EARTH: Minor G1-class geomagnetic storms are possible on June 1st when a CME is expected to sideswipe Earth's magnetic field. The storm cloud was hurled into space on May 28th by departing sunspot AR2824, shown here in a movie from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory:

    This is one of the brightest and fastest CMEs of new Solar Cycle 25. If it were heading directly toward Earth the forecast might be different, calling for major instead of minor geomagnetic storms. However, sunspot AR2824 was almost all the way out of the Earth strike zone when it erupted on May 28th. Only the trailing periphery of the plasma cloud is likely to reach us.

    That said, even glancing blows from CMEs can produce a good light show. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras on June 1st.


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    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Wed Jun 02, 2021 6:44 am

    WAITING FOR A CME: A CME (movie) expected to sideswipe Earth yesterday did not. It either missed or it's late. NOAA analysts are leaning toward "late." A glancing blow is still possible on June 2nd. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras, especially in the southern hemisphere where autumn darkness favors visibility.

    SpaceWeather updates Virga_strip

    IRIDESCENT VIRGA OVER PARIS: Bertrand Kulik is a nature photographer who does some of his best work from the balcony of his apartment. Can you blame him for staying home? He lives in Paris! "At the end of the day on May 29th, I saw these iridescent clouds of virga from my flat in District 15," he says.

    Virga is rain that evaporates before it hits the ground. Of course, Parisian virga doesn't fall from ordinary gray rainclouds. These are iridescent; small water droplets (probably supercooled below freezing) diffract the rays of the setting sun to produce a raincap of pastel color.

    "I have seen virga before, but never like this," says Kulik. For some photographers, there's no place like home.


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    What is life?
    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Thu Jun 10, 2021 5:51 pm

    SpaceWeather updates Longbeach_strip

    SOLAR ECLIPSE TODAY: Sunrise has never been so beautiful--or weird. On Thursday, June 10th, dawn broke over the northeastern USA and Canada with a solar eclipse in progress. Here is what it looked like from Long Beach, New Jersey:

    "We saw two symmetric horns rise above the waves of the Atlantic," says photographer Michael Zeiler. "Heavy refraction in the low atmosphere squashed the crescent-shaped sun into a truly fantastical shape."

    As the eclipsed sun continued to rise, cameras clicked around New York City where the crescent hung behind many iconic landmarks. For example:


    SpaceWeather updates Liberty_strip


    "It was a partly cloudy kind of morning, but I was able to capture this amazing experience through some of the gaps in the clouds," says photographer Anthony Quintano.

    The eclipse was visible in Europe, too, as an afternoon event. The sun was high in the sky when astrophotographer Thierry Legault caught a rare solar transit of the International Space Station not far from the dark limb of the Moon:


    SpaceWeather updates Isstransit_strip2


    "I drove 400km from Paris to Macon, France, to get this split-second shot," says Legault. "As usual, there was a lot of adrenalin!"


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    What is life?
    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Fri Jun 11, 2021 2:43 pm

    More potential scary shi t.

    THE TERMINATION EVENT: Something big may be about to happen on the sun. "We call it the Termination Event," says Scott McIntosh, a solar physicist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), "and it's very, very close to happening."

    If you've never heard of the Termination Event, you're not alone. Many researchers have never heard of it either. It's a relatively new idea in solar physics championed by McIntosh and colleague Bob Leamon of the University of Maryland - Baltimore County. According to the two scientists, vast bands of magnetism are drifting across the surface of the sun. When oppositely-charged bands collide at the equator, they annihilate (or "terminate"). There's no explosion; this is magnetism, not anti-matter. Nevertheless, the Termination Event is a big deal. It can kickstart the next solar cycle into a higher gear.

    SpaceWeather updates Terminate_anim_strip
    Above: Oppositely charged bands of magnetism march toward the sun's equator where they annihilate one another, kickstarting the next solar cycle.

    "If the Terminator Event happens soon, as we expect, new Solar Cycle 25 could have a magnitude that rivals the top few since record-keeping began," says McIntosh.

    This is, to say the least, controversial. Most solar physicists believe that Solar Cycle 25 will be weak, akin to the anemic Solar Cycle 24 which barely peaked back in 2012-2013. Orthodox models of the sun's inner magnetic dynamo favor a weak cycle and do not even include the concept of "terminators."

    "What can I say?" laughs McIntosh. "We're heretics!"

    The researchers outlined their reasoning in a December 2020 paper in the research journal Solar Physics. Looking back over 270 years of sunspot data, they found that Terminator Events divide one solar cycle from the next, happening approximately every 11 years. Emphasis on approximately. The interval between terminators ranges from 10 to 15 years, and this is key to predicting the solar cycle.

    SpaceWeather updates Cycles_strip
    Above: Marked in red, the official forecast for Solar Cycle 25 is weak.

    "We found that the longer the time between terminators, the weaker the next cycle would be," explains Leamon. "Conversely, the shorter the time between terminators, the stronger the next solar cycle would be."

    Example: Sunspot Cycle 4 began with a terminator in 1786 and ended with a terminator in 1801, an unprecedented 15 years later. The following cycle, 5, was incredibly weak with a peak amplitude of just 82 sunspots. That cycle would become known as the beginning of the "Dalton" Grand Minimum.

    Solar Cycle 25 is shaping up to be the opposite. Instead of a long interval, it appears to be coming on the heels of a very short one, only 10 years since the Terminator Event that began Solar Cycle 24. Previous solar cycles with such short intervals have been among the strongest in recorded history.

    These ideas may be controversial, but they have a virtue that all scientists can appreciate: They're testable. If the Termination Event happens soon and Solar Cycle 25 skyrockets, the "heretics" may be on to something. Stay tuned.



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    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Sat Jun 12, 2021 12:57 pm

    SOLAR WIND, INCOMING: A high-speed stream of solar wind is approaching Earth. ETA: June 15-16. The gaseous material is flowing from a southern hole in the sun's atmosphere and could spark high-latitude auroras when it arrives.


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    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Post  Carol Yesterday at 2:50 pm



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    Post  Carol Yesterday at 2:55 pm

    A SUNSPOT GEYSER: Sunspot AR2833 has gone nearly two weeks without producing a significant flare. Don't call it 'boring' though. "This sunspot has a furious geyser," says Apollo Lasky who photographed the plasma fountain from his backyard observatory in Naperville, Illinois:


    SpaceWeather updates Geyser_strip_opt2


    The geyser (if that's what it really is) dwarfs any geyser on Earth. It is more than a million times the size of Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park, and could swallow most US states.

    This could be an unusual type of "Moving Magnetic Feature" (MMF). MMFs are plasma flows around sunspots that carry away magnetic flux, causing sunspots to wither and decay. AR2833, however, has been remarkably stable (we didn't say 'boring'), barely changing as it glides quietly across the face of the sun. If the geyser is an MMF, it is not having the usual effect.


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    What is life?
    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol

      Current date/time is Wed Jun 23, 2021 3:40 am