From APOD download NGC 253 a spiral galaxy in the constellation Sculptor, said to be between eight and thirteen million light years distant, crop the image to 1359 x 1037 pixels centered on the brightest part of the galaxy, extending to the cluster of emission nebulae, the red bits in the disc lower right and to similar emission nebulae upper left.
Pythagoras told us the square on the hypotenuse is the sum of the square of the other two sides, we want to know the measurement of the hypotenuse, which is the straight line opposite the right angle, here represented by the square corners courtesy Microsoft Picture Manager.
1359 squared is 1846881, 1037 squared is 1075369, add the upper and lower and get 2922250, find the square root is 1709, thus the Galaxy subtends an angle of 1709 pixels, rounded out to 1700.
We want to know because there are two more distant spiral galaxies located below right center in the same shot, fortunately both are nearly upright which makes it easier to gauge their width, the lower and smaller of the two fits quite neatly in a square box 14 X 14 pixels, the larger is little longer at around 16, for the sake of simplicity add another pixel to get 17.
Divide that by the angle of 1700 pixels subtended by the much closer NGC 253, and find the more distant galaxy is one hundred times smaller, we are gonna say that it is similarly one hundred times more distant. So far we are getting a handle on the scale of the universe .. exactly the same principle applies locally.
Space based telescopes give one hundred and thirty degrees as the longitudinal dimension of the Milky Way, Sky Catalogue 2000.0 tells us NGC 253 is 25.1 arc minutes or .4163 of one degree long, we divide that by the one thirty degrees of the Milky Way to get 310.78, which means NGC 253 is that many times further away than the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Radio data from Sagittarius A* recognized as the heart of the MW galaxy, has returned a distance of 24,250 light years, NGC 253 is 310.78 times further away, multiply the distance to A* by 310.78, and get 7,536,415 LY as the distance to NGC 253!
We got the figures by finding that NGC 253 is 1700 pixels across, the larger of the two more distant galaxies is one hundred times smaller at seventeen pixels, and one hundred times further away at 753,641,500 light years, multiply by 365.24 x 24 x60 x60 x 186,000 for miles!
The smaller of the two is somewhere around fourteen pixels across, however since it was less than that we do some more calculus, as each pixel is taken away so does the distance increase, should it become eight and one half pixels the distance would be 1578.83 million light years.
Since it was not that small, we will say half way between seventeen and eight and a half, so add four and a quarter pixels for an image half as wide again of twelve and three quarter pixels .. a fair total, then for a place that is similarly halfway between the upper and lower limits, go to a distance half way between at 1130.46 million light years.
FAQ's: How can you say that all spiral galaxies are the same size??
Reply: The MW galaxy has the same overall profile as many similar disc galaxies, including NGC 253, ie an active center and emission nebulae spaced similar distances apart, less active and smaller galaxies have less active profiles, while spherical galaxies fall into a different category altogether, neither classes of object should be mistaken for anything else.
Another edge on spiral visible on the same plate at upper left center, has an image width of around eight and one half pixels, in this model it is around 1,578.83 million light years distant, where each pixel in image width corresponds to 188.2 million ly .. which is why we say galaxies are at a given mean, using the best estimate of the MW at one hundred thousand light years across as a yard stick.
We would be speaking in terms of millionths of a pixel in image width, were we to locate the true size of distant galaxies .. there is a critter called a Dwarf Spiral can trip you up, however all calculations should be accompanied by redshift data, which will expose any of those trying to sneak onto the main list.
Another is Malin 1 named after its discoverer David Malin, who revolutionized astronomical photography in the 1970's and 80's, which does not fit into this scheme, however Malin 1 objects are very rare and seldom encountered, while redshift data would instantly expose them for what they are.
This pic shows the relationships in the Milky Way family
The MW is surrounded by star clouds which formed in emission nebulae at the tidal boundary of the galaxy .. the gravity source can not keep the disc stable outwardly for ever, and bits will spin off and go their own way at that place, this is the physical force that makes all similar disc galaxies roughly the same size, give or take.
The arms in spiral galaxies are a density wave, down which Hole Matter travels from the center trailing expanding emission nebula in its wake, whence form globular clusters and stars, see file material and very rare photos.
Clusters of stars resembling bunches of grapes form, and as expansion continues the individual grapes become stars, see the Pleiades, the Magellanic Clouds formed when a particularly virulent particles of Hole Matter arrived at the tidal boundary, then spun off into intergalactic space, maybe to keep expanding to form other major spirals, which will keep expanding from infinity - like a Mandelbrot Set - to spawn similar galaxies!
Q: How likely is it that globular clusters are juvenile galaxies?
Reply: Probably unlikely, in this model the compressed matter in the spiral arms expands in emission nebulae, to form stars and globular clusters, that drift to stations above and below the disc as the spiral evolves into an ellipse .. the globular clusters form a placenta that effectively shields the galaxy from radiation, and a buffer zone against collisions and impacts with other galaxies.
Q: So galaxies calve?
Reply: Sure they do, look for rare shots of spidery looking juvenile galaxies drifting away from parent bodies!
At left above galaxy M31 the closest major galaxy in the constellation Andromeda, not counting Dwingeloo 1 located directly opposite the nucleus of the MW, which thus remains invisible from Earth, the fuzzy blob below right center of M31 is satellite galaxy M32, the large blob in the disc slightly below left center is M110, both are embryo galaxies that could expand as a child galaxies of M31!
Omega Centauri at center called NGC 5694 is an embryo galaxy of the Milky Way, it has no active nucleus maybe it could start spinning and flatten into a disc, then drift away to expand as a star cloud, or to become a Low Surface Brightness galaxy.
LSB galaxies are numerous and collisions between them are frequent, they do not show up at all on most conventional photo’s, and are thought to produce an abundance of silver which absorbs their light, their presence was revealed after large numbers of blue arcs centered on super massive elliptical galaxies, turned up in deep field shots at right.
Astronomers started looking for more and found millions near and far, during the collision phase if two colliding members are compatible, they combine then rapidly evolve into an active disc, as the nascent black holes lurking at the heart of both respond then reproduce.
Q: What happens next?
The active nucleus of spiral galaxies like the MW and M31 expand and gather all the dust and debris in the galaxy, then contract into a very dense center, the material goes into the torus, the donut of swirling dust and shattered stars that insulates the central surrounds of the black hole, or cluster of BH’s at the center of the galaxy.
Astrometry data is essential so has it been hijacked by NASA and JPL, whose joint purpose has itself been hijacked by defense, which has been hijacked by hijackers who run government, who employ hijackers to hijack hard evidence and true science.
They try to sell their version back to the public, in books and publications with Saganesque data about cannibal galaxies, and wanna tell you “well there was this Big Bang,” there was no BB man is gonna plunge back into the age of ignorance, while it remains the province of the select few with the right security clearance, to get an education.
Check the shot of Sagittraius A* above there is a distance bar but no image width scale, without which it remains a pretty picture with absolutely no scientific value whatever, with good sky maps available that have photographs and catalogs of deep fields, and astrometry, radio locating and red shift data, it does not take long to figure it all out.
The data that is released is most often too raw with dazzling columns of figures, seemingly contradictory terms, and seldom in a form that can be used for home astrometry, the photographs and charts they reproduce never have grid markers, so scale always remains a mystery.
This thread commenced at NGC 253, and was intended to refute the claim the universe is expanding after the explosion of a primal atom, evidenced by Redshift which Big Bangers say shows the velocity of physical recession, which true science recognizes as an artifact of distance.
Nowhere do distant galaxies show evidence that they are fall out from an explosion, there is no trail of smoking debris like there was at the WTC on 911, which was from a genuine big bang, nor do they appear to be doing anything except drifting about a bit, until they establish stable orbits with other members in their group.
Last edited by MartinTimothy on Fri Sep 13, 2013 5:55 pm; edited 4 times in total