Wilhelm Reich developed ideas that Freud had developed at the beginning of his psychoanalytic investigation but then superseded but never finally discarded. These were the concept of the Actualneurosis and a theory of anxiety based upon the idea of dammed-up libido. In Freud's original view, what really happened to a person (the "actual") determined the resulting neurotic disposition. Freud applied that idea both to infants and to adults. In the former case, seductions were sought as the causes of later neuroses and in the latter incomplete sexual release. Unlike Freud, Reich retained the idea that actual experience, especially sexual experience, was of key significance. By the 1920s, Reich had "taken Freud's original ideas about sexual release to the point of specifying the orgasm as the criteria of healthy function." Reich was also "developing his ideas about character into a form that would later take shape, first as "muscular armour", and eventually as a transducer of universal biological energy, the "orgone"."
Fritz Perls, who helped to develop Gestalt therapy, was influenced by Reich, Jung and Freud. The key idea of gestalt therapy is that Freud overlooked the structure of awareness, "an active process that moves toward the construction of organized meaningful wholes... between an organism and its environment." These wholes, called gestalts, are "patterns involving all the layers of organismic function – thought, feeling, and activity." Neurosis is seen as splitting in the formation of gestalts, and anxiety as the organism sensing "the struggle towards its creative unification." Gestalt therapy attempts to cure patients through placing them in contact with "immediate organismic needs." Perls rejected the verbal approach of classical psychoanalysis; talking in gestalt therapy serves the purpose of self-expression rather than gaining self-knowledge. Gestalt therapy usually takes place in groups, and in concentrated "workshops" rather than being spread out over a long period of time; it has been extended into new forms of communal living.
Arthur Janov's primal therapy, which has been an influential post-Freudian psychotherapy, resembles psychoanalytic therapy in its emphasis on early childhood experience, but nevertheless has profound differences with it. While Janov's theory is akin to Freud's early idea of Actualneurosis, he does not have a dynamic psychology but a nature psychology like that of Reich or Perls, in which need is primary while wish is derivative and dispensable when need is met. Despite its surface similarity to Freud's ideas, Janov's theory lacks a strictly psychological account of the unconscious and belief in infantile sexuality. While for Freud there was a hierarchy of danger situations, for Janov the key event in the child's life is awareness that the parents do not love it. Janov writes that primal therapy has in some ways returned to Freud's early ideas and techniques.
Frederick Crews considers Freud the key influence upon "champions of survivorship" such as Ellen Bass and Laura Davis, co-authors of The Courage to Heal (1988), although in his view they are indebted not to classic psychoanalysis but to "the pre-psychoanalytic Freud, the one who supposedly took pity on his hysterical patients, found that they were all harboring memories of early abuse... and cured them by unknotting their repression." Crews sees Freud as having anticipated the recovered memory movement's "puritanical alarmism" by emphasizing "mechanical cause-and-effect relations between symptomatology and the premature stimulation of one body zone or another", and with pioneering its "technique of thematically matching a patient's symptom with a sexually symmetrical 'memory.'" Crews believes that Freud's confidence in accurate recall of early memories anticipates the theories of recovered memory therapists such as Lenore Terr, which in his view have led to people being wrongfully imprisoned or involved in litigation.
Though there have been predictions of a progressive decline in support for psychodynamic therapies, there is a body of research findings which support their efficacy in treating a wide range of psychological disorders.
Research projects designed to test Freud's theories empirically have led to a vast literature on the topic. Seymour Fisher and Roger P. Greenberg concluded in 1977 that some of Freud's concepts were supported by empirical evidence. Their analysis of research literature supported Freud's concepts of oral and anal personality constellations, his account of the role of Oedipal factors in certain aspects of male personality functioning, his formulations about the relatively greater concern about loss of love in women's as compared to men's personality economy, and his views about the instigating effects of homosexual anxieties on the formation of paranoid delusions. They also found limited and equivocal support for Freud's theories about the development of homosexuality. They found that several of Freud's other theories, including his portrayal of dreams as primarily containers of secret, unconscious wishes, as well as some of his views about the psychodynamics of women, were either not supported or contradicted by research. Reviewing the issues again in 1996, they concluded that much experimental data relevant to Freud's work exists, and supports some of his major ideas and theories. Fisher and Greenberg's similar conclusions in their more extensive earlier volume on experimental studies have been strongly criticised for alleged methodological deficiencies by Paul Kline, who writes that they "accept results at their face value with almost no consideration of methodological adequacy", and by Edward Erwin.
Other viewpoints include those of Hans Eysenck, who writes in Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire (1985) that Freud set back the study of psychology and psychiatry "by something like fifty years or more", and Malcolm Macmillan, who concludes in Freud Evaluated (1991) that "Freud's method is not capable of yielding objective data about mental processes". Morris Eagle states that it has been "demonstrated quite conclusively that because of the epistemologically contaminated status of clinical data derived from the clinical situation, such data have questionable probative value in the testing of psychoanalytic hypotheses". Richard Webster, in Why Freud Was Wrong (1995), called psychoanalysis perhaps the most complex and successful pseudoscience in history. Crews believes that psychoanalysis has no scientific or therapeutic merit.
I.B. Cohen regards Freud's Interpretation of Dreams as a revolutionary work of science, the last such work to be published in book form. In contrast Allan Hobson believes that Freud, by rhetorically discrediting 19th century investigators of dreams such as Alfred Maury and the Marquis de Hervey de Saint-Denis at a time when study of the physiology of the brain was only beginning, interrupted the development of scientific dream theory for half a century. The dream researcher G. William Domhoff has disputed claims of Freudian dream theory being validated.
Karl Popper, who argued that all proper scientific theories must be potentially falsifiable, claimed that Freud's psychoanalytic theories were presented in unfalsifiable form, meaning that no experiment could ever disprove them. Adolf Grünbaum, in The Foundations of Psychoanalysis (1984), has argued that Popper was mistaken and that many of Freud's theories are empirically testable, a verdict with which others such as Eysenck agree. The philosopher Donald Levy agrees with Grünbaum's rejection of Popper’s unfalsifiability thesis as applied to Freud’s theories but disputes his contention that only therapeutic success is the empirical basis on which they stand or fall, arguing that a much wider range of empirical evidence can be adduced if clinical case material is taken into consideration.
In a study of psychoanalysis in the United States, Nathan Hale reported on the "decline of psychoanalysis in psychiatry" during the years 1965-1985. The continuation of this trend was noted by Alan Stone: "As academic psychology becomes more 'scientific' and psychiatry more biological, psychoanalysis is being brushed aside." Paul Stepansky, while noting that psychoanalysis remains influential in the humanities, records the "vanishingly small number of psychiatric residents who choose to pursue psychoanalytic training" and the "nonanalytic backgrounds of psychiatric chairpersons at major universities" among the evidence he cites for his conclusion that "Such historical trends attest to the marginalisation of psychoanalysis within American psychiatry." Nonetheless Freud was ranked as the third most cited psychologist of the 20th century, according to a Review of General Psychology survey of American psychologists and psychology texts, published in 2002. It is also claimed that in moving beyond the "orthodoxy of the not so distant past...new ideas and new research has led to an intense reawakening of interest in psychoanalysis from neighbouring disciplines ranging from the humanities to neuroscience and including the non-analytic therapies”.
Research in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis, founded by neuroscientist and psychoanalyst Mark Solms, has proved controversial with some psychoanalysts criticising the very concept itself. Solms and his colleagues have argued for neuro-scientific findings being "broadly consistent" with Freudian theories pointing out brain structures relating to Freudian concepts such as libido, drives, the unconscious, and repression. Neuroscientists who have endorsed Freud’s work include David Eagleman who believes that Freud "transformed psychiatry" by providing " the first exploration of the way in which hidden states of the brain participate in driving thought and behavior" and Nobel laureate Eric Kandel who argues that "psychoanalysis still represents the most coherent and intellectually satisfying view of the mind."
Psychoanalysis has been interpreted as both radical and conservative. By the 1940s, it had come to be seen as conservative by the European and American intellectual community. Critics outside the psychoanalytic movement, whether on the political left or right, saw Freud as a conservative. Fromm had argued that several aspects of psychoanalytic theory served the interests of political reaction in his The Fear of Freedom (1942), an assessment confirmed by sympathetic writers on the right. In Freud: The Mind of the Moralist (1959), Philip Rieff portrayed Freud as a man who urged men to make the best of an inevitably unhappy fate, and admirable for that reason. In the 1950s, Herbert Marcuse challenged the then prevailing interpretation of Freud as a conservative in Eros and Civilization (1955), as did Lionel Trilling in Freud and the Crisis of Our Culture and Norman O. Brown in Life Against Death (1959). Eros and Civilization helped make the idea that Freud and Marx were addressing similar questions from different perspectives credible to the left. Marcuse criticized neo-Freudian revisionism for discarding seemingly pessimistic theories such as the death instinct, arguing that they could be turned in a utopian direction. Freud's theories also influenced the Frankfurt School and critical theory as a whole.
Freud has been compared to Marx by Reich, who saw Freud's importance for psychiatry as parallel to that of Marx for economics, and by Paul Robinson, who sees Freud as a revolutionary whose contributions to twentieth century thought are comparable in importance to Marx's contributions to nineteenth century thought. Fromm calls Freud, Marx, and Einstein the "architects of the modern age", but rejects the idea that Marx and Freud were equally significant, arguing that Marx was both far more historically important and a finer thinker. Fromm nevertheless credits Freud with permanently changing the way human nature is understood. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari write in Anti-Oedipus (1972) that psychoanalysis resembles the Russian Revolution in that it became corrupted almost from the beginning. They believe this began with Freud's development of the theory of the Oedipus complex, which they see as idealist.
Jean-Paul Sartre critiques Freud's theory of the unconscious in Being and Nothingness (1943), claiming that consciousness is essentially self-conscious. Sartre also attempts to adapt some of Freud's ideas to his own account of human life, and thereby develop an "existential psychoanalysis" in which causal categories are replaced by teleological categories. Maurice Merleau-Ponty considers Freud to be one of the anticipators of phenomenology, while Theodor W. Adorno considers Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, to be Freud's philosophical opposite, writing that Husserl's polemic against psychologism could have been directed against psychoanalysis. Paul Ricœur sees Freud as a master of the "school of suspicion", alongside Marx and Nietzsche. Ricœur and Jürgen Habermas have helped create a "hermeneutic version of Freud", one which "claimed him as the most significant progenitor of the shift from an objectifying, empiricist understanding of the human realm to one stressing subjectivity and interpretation." Louis Althusser drew on Freud's concept of overdetermination for his reinterpretation of Marx's Capital. Jean-François Lyotard developed a theory of the unconscious that reverses Freud's account of the dream-work: for Lyotard, the unconscious is a force whose intensity is manifest via disfiguration rather than condensation. Jacques Derrida finds Freud to be both a late figure in the history of western metaphysics and, with Nietzsche and Heidegger, a precursor of his own brand of radicalism.
Several scholars see Freud as parallel to Plato, writing that they hold nearly the same theory of dreams and have similar theories of the tripartite structure of the human soul or personality, even if the hierarchy between the parts of the soul is almost reversed. Ernest Gellner argues that Freud's theories are an inversion of Plato's. Whereas Plato saw a hierarchy inherent in the nature of reality, and relied upon it to validate norms, Freud was a naturalist who could not follow such an approach. Both men's theories drew a parallel between the structure of the human mind and that of society, but while Plato wanted to strengthen the super-ego, which corresponded to the aristocracy, Freud wanted to strengthen the ego, which corresponded to the middle class. Paul Vitz compares Freudian psychoanalysis to Thomism, noting St. Thomas's belief in the existence of an "unconscious consciousness" and his "frequent use of the word and concept 'libido' - sometimes in a more specific sense than Freud, but always in a manner in agreement with the Freudian use." Vitz suggests that Freud may have been unaware that his theory of the unconscious was reminiscent of Aquinas.
The poem "In Memory of Sigmund Freud" was published by British poet W. H. Auden in his 1940 collection Another Time.
Literary critic Harold Bloom has been influenced by Freud. Camille Paglia has also been influenced by Freud, whom she calls "Nietzsche's heir" and one of the greatest sexual psychologists in literature, but has rejected the scientific status of his work in her Sexual Personae (1990), writing, "Freud has no rivals among his successors because they think he wrote science, when in fact he wrote art."
The decline in Freud's reputation has been attributed partly to the revival of feminism. Simone de Beauvoir criticizes psychoanalysis from an existentialist standpoint in The Second Sex (1949), arguing that Freud saw an "original superiority" in the male that is in reality socially induced. Betty Friedan criticizes Freud and what she considered his Victorian view of women in The Feminine Mystique (1963). Freud's concept of penis envy was attacked by Kate Millett, who in Sexual Politics (1970) accused him of confusion and oversights. Naomi Weisstein writes that Freud and his followers erroneously thought that his "years of intensive clinical experience" added up to scientific rigor.
Freud is also criticized by Shulamith Firestone and Eva Figes. In The Dialectic of Sex (1970), Firestone argues that Freud was a "poet" who produced metaphors rather than literal truths; in her view, Freud, like feminists, recognized that sexuality was the crucial problem of modern life, but ignored the social context and failed to question society itself. Firestone interprets Freudian "metaphors" in terms of the literal facts of power within the family. Figes tries in Patriarchal Attitudes (1970) to place Freud within a "history of ideas". Juliet Mitchell defends Freud against his feminist critics in Psychoanalysis and Feminism (1974), accusing them of misreading him and misunderstanding the implications of psychoanalytic theory for feminism. Mitchell helped introduce English-speaking feminists to Lacan. Mitchell is criticized by Jane Gallop in The Daughter's Seduction (1982). Gallop compliments Mitchell for her criticism of "the distortions inflicted by feminists upon Freud's text and his discoveries", but finds her treatment of Lacanian theory lacking.
Some French feminists, among them Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray, have been influenced by Freud as interpreted by Lacan. Irigaray has produced a theoretical challenge to Freud and Lacan, using their theories against them to put forward a "psychoanalytic explanation for theoretical bias". Irigaray claims that "the cultural unconscious only recognizes the male sex", and "details the effects of this unconscious belief on accounts of the psychology of women".
Psychologist Carol Gilligan writes that "The penchant of developmental theorists to project a masculine image, and one that appears frightening to women, goes back at least to Freud." She sees Freud's criticism of women's sense of justice reappearing in the work of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg. Gilligan notes that Nancy Chodorow, in contrast to Freud, attributes sexual difference not to anatomy but to the fact that male and female children have different early social environments. Chodorow, writing against the masculine bias of psychoanalysis, "replaces Freud's negative and derivative description of female psychology with a positive and direct account of her own."
Toril Moi has developed a feminist perspective on psychoanalysis proposing that it is a discourse that "attempts to understand the psychic consequences of three universal traumas: the fact that there are others, the fact of sexual difference, and the fact of death". She replaces Freud's term of castration with Stanley Cavell's concept of "victimization" which is a more universal term that applies equally to both sexes. Moi regards this concept of human finitude as a suitable replacement for both castration and sexual difference as the traumatic "discovery of our separate, sexed, mortal existence" and how both men and women come to terms with it.
1891 On Aphasia
1895 Studies on Hysteria (co-authored with Josef Breuer)
1900 The Interpretation of Dreams
1901 On Dreams (abridged version of The Interpretation of Dreams)
1904 The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
1905 Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious
1905 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
1907 Delusion and Dream in Jensen's Gradiva
1910 Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis
1910 Leonardo da Vinci, A Memory of His Childhood
1913 Totem and Taboo: Resemblances between the Psychic Lives of Savages and Neurotics
1915–17 Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis
1920 Beyond the Pleasure Principle
1921 Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego
1923 The Ego and the Id
1926 Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety
1926 The Question of Lay Analysis
1927 The Future of an Illusion
1930 Civilization and Its Discontents
1933 New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis
1939 Moses and Monotheism
1949 An Outline of Psycho-Analysis
1905 Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria (the Dora case history)
1909 Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy (the Little Hans case history)
1909 Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis (the Rat Man case history)
1911 Psycho-Analytic Notes on an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia (the Schreber case)
1918 From the History of an Infantile Neurosis (the Wolfman case history)
1920 The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman
1923 A Seventeenth-Century Demonological Neurosis (the Haizmann case)
Papers on sexuality
1906 My Views on the Part Played by Sexuality in the Aetiology of the Neuroses
1908 "Civilized" Sexual Morality and Modern Nervous Illness
1910 A Special Type of Choice of Object made by Men
1912 Types of Onset of Neurosis
1912 The Most Prevalent Form of Degradation in Erotic Life
1913 The Disposition to Obsessional Neurosis
1915 A Case of Paranoia Running Counter to the Psycho-Analytic Theory of the Disease
1919 A Child is Being Beaten: A Contribution to the Origin of Sexual Perversions
1922 Medusa's Head
1922 Some Neurotic Mechanisms in Jealousy, Paranoia and Homosexuality
1923 Infantile Genital Organisation
1924 The Dissolution of the Oedipus Complex
1925 Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction between the Sexes
1931 Female Sexuality
1938 The Splitting of the Ego in the Process of Defence
1914 The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement
1925 An Autobiographical Study
The Standard Edition
The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Trans. from the German under the general editorship of James Strachey, in collaboration with Anna Freud, assisted by Alix Strachey, Alan Tyson, and Angela Richards. 24 volumes, London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953-1974.
Vol. I Pre-Psycho-Analytic Publications and Unpublished Drafts (1886-1899).
Vol. II Studies in Hysteria (1893-1895). By Josef Breuer and S. Freud.
Vol. III Early Psycho-Analytic Publications (1893-1899)
Vol. IV The Interpretation of Dreams (I) (1900)
Vol. V The Interpretation of Dreams (II) and On Dreams (1900-1901)
Vol. VI The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901)
Vol. VII A Case of Hysteria, Three Essays on Sexuality and Other Works (1901-1905)
Vol. VIII Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious (1905)
Vol. IX Jensen's 'Gradiva,' and Other Works (1906-1909)
Vol. X The Cases of 'Little Hans' and the Rat Man' (1909)
Vol. XI Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, Leonardo and Other Works (1910)
Vol. XIII Totem and Taboo and Other Works (1913-1914)
Vol. XIV On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement, Papers on Meta-psychology and Other Works (1914-1916)
Vol. XV Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (Parts I and II) (1915-1916)
Vol. XVI Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (Part III) (1916-1917)
Vol. XVII An Infantile Neurosis and Other Works (1917-1919)
Vol. XVIII Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Group Psychology and Other Works (1920-1922)
Vol. XIX The Ego and the Id and Other Works (1923-1925)
Vol. XX An Autobiographical Study, Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, Lay Analysis and Other Works (1925-1926)
Vol. XXI The Future of an Illusion, Civilization and its Discontents and Other Works (1927-1931)
Vol. XXII New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis and Other Works (1932-1936)
Vol. XXIII Moses and Monotheism, An Outline of Psycho-Analysis and Other Works (1937 - 1939)
Vol. XXIV Indexes and Bibliographies (Compiled by Angela Richards,1974)
Selected Letters of Sigmund Freud to Martha Bernays, Ansh Mehta and Ankit Patel (eds), CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015. ISBN 978-1-515-13703-0
Correspondence: Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Cambridge: Polity 2014. ISBN 978-0-7456-4149-2
The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: Inside Psychoanalysis (eds. E. J. Lieberman and Robert Kramer). Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, 1887–1904, (editor and translator Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson), 1985, ISBN 978-0-674-15420-9
The Sigmund Freud Carl Gustav Jung Letters, Publisher: Princeton University Press; Abr edition, 1994, ISBN 978-0-691-03643-4
The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham, 1907–1925, Publisher: Karnac Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-85575-051-7
The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908–1939., Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0-674-15424-7
The Sigmund Freud - Ludwig Binswanger Correspondence 1908-1939, London: Other Press 2003, ISBN 1-892746-32-8
The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi, Volume 1, 1908–1914, Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-674-17418-4
The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi, Volume 2, 1914–1919, Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0-674-17419-1
The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi, Volume 3, 1920–1933, Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-674-00297-5
The Letters of Sigmund Freud to Eduard Silberstein, 1871–1881, Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-52828-4
Psycho-Analysis and Faith: The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Oskar Pfister. Trans. Eric Mosbacher. Heinrich Meng and Ernst L. Freud. eds London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1963.
Sigmund Freud and Lou Andreas-Salome; Letters, Publisher: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; 1972, ISBN 978-0-15-133490-2
The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Arnold Zweig, Publisher: New York University Press, 1987, ISBN 978-0-8147-2585-6
Letters of Sigmund Freud – selected and edited by Ernst Ludwig Freud, Publisher: New York: Basic Books, 1960, ISBN 978-0-486-27105-7
1.^ Jump up to: a b Tansley, A. G. (1941). "Sigmund Freud. 1856–1939". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 3 (9): 246–226. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1941.0002. JSTOR 768889.
2.Jump up ^ "Freud". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
3.^ Jump up to: a b Ford & Urban 1965, p. 109
4.Jump up ^ Noel Sheehy, Alexandra Forsythe (2013). "Sigmund Freud". Fifty Key Thinkers in Psychology. Routledge. ISBN 1134704933.
5.Jump up ^ Eric R. Kandel The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind and Brain, from Vienna 1900 to the Present. New York: Random House 2012, pp. 45-46.
6.Jump up ^ Gay 2006, pp. 136-7
7.Jump up ^ Jones, Ernest (1949) What is Psychoanalysis ? London: Allen & Unwin. p. 47.
8.Jump up ^ Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, p. 49-51
9.Jump up ^ Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, pp. 146-47
10.Jump up ^ For its efficacy and the influence of psychoanalysis on psychiatry and psychotherapy, see The Challenge to Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, Chapter 9, Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry: A Changing Relationship by Robert Michels, 1999 and Tom Burns Our Necessary Shadow: The Nature and Meaning of Psychiatry London: Allen Lane 2013 p. 96-97. For the influence on psychology, see The Psychologist, December 2000
For the influence of psychoanalysis in the humanities, see J. Forrester The Seductions of Psychoanalysis Cambridge University Press 1990, pp. 2-3.
For the debate on efficacy, see Fisher, S. and Greenberg, R. P., Freud Scientifically Reappraised: Testing the Theories and Therapy, New York: John Wiley, 1996, pp. 193-217.
For the debate on the scientific status of psychoanalysis see Stevens, R. 1985 Freud and Psychoanalysis Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 91-116.
For the debate on psychoanalysis and feminism, see Appignanesi, Lisa & Forrester, John. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, 1992, pp. 455-474
11.Jump up ^ Auden 1940 Also see Alexander, Sam "In Memory of Sigmund Freud" (undated) and Thurschwell, P. Sigmund Freud London: Routledge 2009, p. 1
12.Jump up ^ Peter Gay (1995), Freud: A Life for Our Time: picture caption "his adored mother"
13.Jump up ^ Gresser 1994, p. 225.
14.Jump up ^ Emanuel Rice (1990). Freud and Moses: The Long Journey Home. SUNY Press. p. 55. ISBN 0791404536.
15.Jump up ^ Gay 2006, pp. 4–8; Clark 1980, p. 4 For Jakob's Torah study, see Meissner 1993, p. 233.
For the date of the marriage, see Rice 1990, p. 55.
16.Jump up ^ Deborah P. Margolis, M.A. "Margolis 1989". Pep-web.org. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
17.Jump up ^ Jones, Ernest (1964) Sigmund Freud: Life and Work. Edited and abridged by Lionel Trilling and Stephen Marcus. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books p. 37
18.Jump up ^ Hothersall 2004, p. 276.
19.Jump up ^ Hothersall 1995
20.Jump up ^ See Past studies of the eels and references therein.
21.Jump up ^ Gay 2006, p. 42-47
22.Jump up ^ Peter J. Swales, "Freud, Minna Bernays and the Conquest of Rome: New Light on the Origins of Psychoanalysis", The New American Review, Spring/Summer 1982, pp. 1-23, which also includes speculation over an abortion. see Gay 2006, pp. 76, 752-53 for a sceptical rejoinder to Swales.
for the discovery of the hotel log see http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/24/world/europe/24iht-web.1224freud.3998915.html?pagewanted=all
23.Jump up ^ Gay 2006, pp. 77, 169
24.Jump up ^ Freud and Bonaparte 2009, pp. 238-239
25.Jump up ^ Pigman, G. W. (1995). "Freud and the history of empathy". The International journal of psycho-analysis. 76 ( Pt 2): 237–256. PMID 7628894.
26.^ Jump up to: a b Vitz 1988, pp. 53–54
27.Jump up ^ Sulloway 1979, pp. 243, 253
28.Jump up ^ Paul Roazen, in Dufresne, Todd (ed). Returns of the French Freud: Freud, Lacan, and Beyond. New York and London: Routledge Press, 1997, p. 13
29.Jump up ^ Gay 2006, p. 45
30.Jump up ^ Holt 1989, p. 242
31.Jump up ^ Bloom 1994, p. 346
32.Jump up ^ Robert, Marthe (1976) From Oedipus to Moses: Freud’s Jewish Identity New York: Anchor pp. 3-6
33.Jump up ^ Frosh, Stephen (2004). "Freud, Psychoanalysis and Anti-Semitism". The Psychoanalytic Review 91: 309–330. doi:10.1521/prev.91.3.309.38302.
34.Jump up ^ Freud had a small lithographic version of the painting, created by Eugène Pirodon (1824-1908), framed and hung on the wall of his Vienna rooms from 1886 to 1938. Once Freud reached England, it was immediately placed directly over the analytical couch in his London rooms.
35.Jump up ^ Joseph Aguayo, PhD. "Joseph Aguayo Charcot and Freud: Some Implications of Late 19th-century French Psychiatry and Politics for the Origins of Psychoanalysis (1986). Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 9:223–260". Pep-web.org. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
36.Jump up ^ Gay 2006, pp. 64–71
37.Jump up ^ "jewishvirtuallibrary Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
38.Jump up ^ Freud 1896c, pp. 203, 211, 219; Eissler 2005, p. 96
39.Jump up ^ J. Forrester The Seductions of Psychoanalysis Cambridge University Press 1990, pp. 75-76
40.Jump up ^ Gay 2006, pp. 88-96
41.Jump up ^ Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971,pp. 55-81
42.Jump up ^ Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, p. 91
43.Jump up ^ Charles Bernheimer and Claire Kahane (eds) In Dora's Case: Freud - Hysteria - Feminism, London: Virago 1985
44.Jump up ^ John Forrester, Introduction; Sigmund Freud (2006). Interpreting Dreams. Penguin Books Limited. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-14-191553-1. "Affiliated Professor seems to me to be the best translation of professor extraordinarius, which position has the rank of full Professor, but without payment by the University."
45.Jump up ^ Clark (1980), p. 424
46.Jump up ^ Phillips, Adam (2014) Becoming Freud Yale University Press. p. 139
47.^ Jump up to: a b c Rose, Louis (1998). The Freudian Calling: Early Psychoanalysis and the Pursuit of Cultural Science. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8143-2621-3.
48.Jump up ^ name=Cassandra100>Schwartz, Joseph (2003). Cassandra's daughter: a history of psychoanalysis. London: Karnac. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-85575-939-8.
49.Jump up ^ Ellenberger, Henri F. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious: the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry ([Repr.] ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 443, 454. ISBN 978-0-465-01673-0.
50.Jump up ^ Stekel's review appeared in 1902. In it, he declared that Freud's work heralded "a new era in psychology".Rose, Louis (1998). The Freudian Calling: Early Psychoanalysis and the Pursuit of Cultural Science. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8143-2621-3.
51.Jump up ^ Rose, Louis (1998). "Freud and fetishism: previously unpublished minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society". Psychoanalytic Quartery 57: 147.
52.Jump up ^ Reitler's family had converted to Catholicism. Makari, George (2008). Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis (Australian ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-522-85480-0.
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212.Jump up ^ P. Robinson, Freud and His Critics, 1993, pp. 1-2.
213.^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis. London: Penguin Books, 2000, pp. xxix, 303–356
214.Jump up ^ Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp.176–203
215.Jump up ^ Weisstein, Naomi (1994). "Kinder, Küche, Kirche as Scientific Law: Psychology Constructs the Female". In Schneir, Miriam. Feminism in Our Time. Vintage. p. 217. ISBN 0-679-74508-4.
216.Jump up ^ Gallop, Jane. The Daughter's Seduction: Feminism and Psychoanalysis. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1992
217.Jump up ^ Gallop, Jane & Burke, Carolyn, in Eisenstein, Hester & Jardine, Alice (eds.). The Future of Difference. New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press, 1987, pp. 106–108
218.Jump up ^ Whitford, Margaret. Luce Irigaray: Philosophy in the Feminine. London and New York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 31–32
219.Jump up ^ Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard University Press, 1982, pp. 6–8, 18
220.Jump up ^ Moi, Toril (March 2004). "From Femininity to Finitude: Freud, Lacan, and Feminism, again". Signs Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 03/2004; 29(3): 871. doi:10.1086/380630.
221.Jump up ^ Cavell, Stanley (1999). The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality and Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 111 and 431.
222.Jump up ^ Cavell, Stanley (1999). The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 431.
223.Jump up ^ "The Psychogenesis of a case of Homosexuality in a Woman: 1920: Sigmund Freud « Lacanian Works". Lacanianworks.net. Retrieved 20 August 2014.