Biophotons were discovered in 1923 by Russian medical scientist Professor Alexander G. Gurwitsch, who named them "mitogenetic rays". He found that he could stimulate the growth of cells, and their division, by exposing them to radiations from an already growing organism. In his first experiments, be used onion roots. These were arranged in glass tubes enveloping most of their length, so that only the parts needed in the experiment were exposed. On the side of the detector root nearest to the transmitter root, more cells divided, and there was an increase in size and chemical activity.
His first assumption, or hypothesis, was that this was due to a chemical substance released from the transmitter root. So he inserted a quartz sheet between the two roots to block any such mediators, and found that the effect was not abolished. When a sheet of glass was interposed instead, however, there was no response by the detector root. Since the effect could pass through quartz, it had to be an electromagnetic wave; but if it could not pass through glass, then it was almost certainly in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. (Gurwitsch, A., "Die Natur des Specifischen Erregurs der Zeliteilung", Roux, Archiv: 100; 11, 1923)
Dr. Vlail Kaznacheyev was Director of the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine in Novosibirsk. For 20 years he has been directing highly unusual experiments with twin cell cultures. In the experiments, two sealed containers were placed side by side, with a thin optical window separating them.
A tissue was separated into two identical samples, and one sample placed in each of the two halves of the apparatus. The cells in one sample (on one side of the glass) were then subjected to a deleterious agent - a selected virus, bacterial infection, chemical poison, nuclear radiation, deadly ultraviolet radiation, etc - that led to disease and death of the exposed/infected cell culture sample. If the thin optical window was made of ordinary window glass, the uninfected cells on the other side of the window were undamaged and remained healthy. However, if the thin optical window was made of quartz, some time (usually about 12 hours) after the disease appeared in the infected sample, the same features of disease appeared in the uninfected sample. This startling "infection by optical coupling" occurred in a substantial percentage of the tests (70 to 80 percent). Further, if the originally uninfected cells were in optical contact with the infected cells for 18-20 hours or so, and then were correspondingly exposed (optically coupled) to another uninfected cell sample, symptoms of the infection appeared in this third sample in an appreciable amount (20 to 30 percent). Use of the detector as a new inductor in a successive state reduces the effect by 20-30%. Three or four such stages is sufficient to eliminate the effect.
The cellular disease induction effect was called the mirror cytopathogenic effect (CPE for short) by the Kaznacheyev group. Mirror CPE appeared only when the quartz or mica window was no thicker than 0.8 mm. A. F. Kirkin also duplicated the experiments using a thin plexiglas window.
There are conditions which enhance the effect, and others which inhibit or degrade it. Both cultures must be maintained in complete darkness throughout the experiment. Increasing the temperature to 38.5 degrees centigrade also enhances the effect (from 37% to 90% for example). A necessary condition for the success of the experiment is the rotation of the holder with its two optically-coupled samples at a rate of about 24-25 revolutions per hour. Optical contact between the inductor and detector cells for a minimum of 4-6 hours is necessary, after which the cell cultures can be separated. A longer contact time is necessary for complete development of the irreversible effect.
In more than 15,000 experiments, monthly variations and daily variations were noted. Kaznacheyev further discovered that the Sun's activity and the Earth's magnetic field greatly affected the results of his experiments. Large flashes on the sun seem to inhibit the effect. In a season of active sunspots, the mirror CPE effect becomes highly unstable. Under active sun conditions, the effect varies from 90-100% on some days to complete absence on others. Negative results appear more often in winter.
Irradiation of the detector-culture with a low dose of UV prior to its optical contact enhances the effect, increasing it to certainty (99-100% ). (lieutenant colonel Thomas E. Bearden, PhD, AIDS Biological Warfare, 1988, Chapter 5 Extraordinary Biology)
The next key finding was that bioradiation could be triggered off by exposing cells to a source of ultraviolet light. When a graphite-arc lamp, which was the only source of UV available in laboratories at that time, was directed at a preparation of cells, they not only produced their own bioradiation in response, but an increase in metabolic activity followed as well. The implication is clear: UV from natural, sunlight sources must be equally able to stimulate our metabolisms.
After UVB-irradiation of cells an increase of biophotonic emission was observed in postmitotic fibroblasts. The ultraweak photon emission of a culture medium was significantly higher at 37°C than at 25°C and after UVB-irradiation this difference was even more pronounced. While with cells in the medium no temperature dependence could be determined in unirradiated samples, after UVB-irradiation of cells an increase of biophotonic emission was observed in postmitotic fibroblasts. (Temperature dependence of ultraweak photon emission in fibroblastic differentiation after irradiation with artificial sunlight, Hugo J Niggli, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, May 2003, pp. 424-430 )
Lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxidase (POD) reactions, which are involved in the production of reactive oxygen and radical species, are shown to be associated with ultraweak photon emission in plant defense mechanisms. These enzyme reactions induced high-level ultraweak photon emission in an in vitro reaction system. The application of LOX to sweet potato slices caused photon emission directly in plants. LOX substrate promoted photon emission in chitosan-treated sweet potato, and LOX inhibitor markedly suppressed this emission. Therefore, a LOX-related pathway, including LOX and other downstream reactions, is principally associated with photon emission in plant defense mechanisms. (Endogenous enzyme reactions closely related to photon emission in the plant defense response, Youichi Aoshima, Kimihiko Kato & Takahiro Makino, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, May 2003, pp. 500-510 )
Research projects in China have shown that application of the biofield affects lithium fluoride thermoluminesence detectors, polarized light beams, Van de Graff generators, and silicone crystal plates.
The secondary radiation (the energy put out by an organism or solution in response to an input of ultraviolet energy) became stronger the more dilute the solution. Thus a 0.02 per cent solution of nucleic acid produced its peak effect in one fifth of the time taken by a 1 per cent solution. Similar results were found with suspensions of bacteria. (Miley, G., 'The Knott Technique of UV blood irradiation', New York Journal of Medicine: 42; 38-46, 1942)
When six quartz test tubes containing bacteria were set side by side, and the first one was irradiated with UV, there was a secondary radiation emitted from the other end of the row, which was twenty seven times greater than the input UV. (Ronge, H.E., 'Ultraviolet Irradiation with Artificial Illumination: A Technical, Physiological and Hygienic Study', Acta Pbysiol Scand: 15 (supp. 49); 163-171, 1948)
The degree of radiation appeared to depend on what was going on in the organism or tissue. Cells which were in the process of growing and dividing radiated most, and cells in a state of exhaustion radiated least. In fact, the radiation detected from human blood was highest when the individual's energy level was high, and at its lowest after a day's hard work.
Protti in Milan, and other researchers throughout Europe, found in the thirties that the radiation detectable from blood increased after food, and decreased with fatigue. After a day's work or several hours physical exertion it was down to almost nothing. in a couple of hours it had returned nearly to normal. Inhaling oxygen had a boosting effect on bioradiation, but only for about one hour. The effect of ultraviolet exposure, on the other hand, lasted for hours or even days. (Wassitieff, L.L., "De I' influence de Travail Cerebral sur la Radiation Mitogenetique de sang", Arch. Sciences Biol: 35; 104,1934)
Blood from anybody with a serious illness did not radiate well, and the most dramatic difference was found with cancer patients. The lack of any radiation from the blood of people with cancer was so striking that the researchers came to regard this as a reliable test for cancer, and many cases of previously undiagnosed cancer are reported to have been detected by this method. When they took samples from the malignant growth itself, on the other hand, they found that it radiated very strongly.
Red blood cells are peculiarly sensitive to light and will respond to it by emitting biophotons that in turn stimulate other red blood cells to do likewise. Bacteria and viruses are more vulnerable to biophotonic emissions than are somatic cells.
Two glasses with fresh pig blood were put next to each other. In one glass a causative agent was trickled; the blood reacted by building antibodies. Then, the blood in the other glass also builded antibodies, without the presence of the causative agent! When a light-absorbing wall separated the two glasses, the effect did not occur.
The UVB irradiation of a small fraction (some 5 percent) of the blood, that spreads throughout the entire volume of the blood upon returning to the body, induced secondary emissions (biophotons are emitted by the activated cells) which destroyed viruses, bacteria, and--in autoimmune diseases--activated white blood cells. In autoimmune disorders it appears that the metabolically active T-cells and other immune cells absorb much greater numbers of biophotons than ordinary body cells, and this destroys them, thus slowing down or stopping the disease.
In 1974 German biophysicist Fritz-Albert Popp, without knowing the details of the research of Gurwitsch, was able to successfully detect the existence of biophotons, and theorizes that their origin is from cell microstructures and DNA.
Popp postulates that biological systems generally have the capacity to store coherent photons that come from the external world. According to him, the energy we extract from our food stems from the sunlight that plants store. His analysis strongly implies that "ultraweak" photon intensity can regulate the whole cell metabolism and related phenomena.
Ultraweak bioluminescence, the light emitted from organisms, was found to be coherent, laser like, and typically radiating with intensities of a few tens up to few hundreds of photons per square cm.
In his "Photon Storage in Biological Systems," Popp points out the master cellular communication and control system as follows:
"The photons which we have measured can be seen as a sort of "waste" from a virtual electromagnetic field with a high coherence. This field has a tendency to become stationary over the whole organism."
After additional analysis, he adds:
" Consequently, biological systems must exhibit 'holographic' properties to an extremely high degree. The successful trials in
finding 'pictures' of various organs in each other organ, such as the ear, the hands, the eyes (acupuncture, iris diagnosis) support these conclusions."
Popp concludes: "From this we can easily deduce that pattern recognition, as, for example, repair mechanisms and immunity, depends finally on the coherence of the photon field within the body."
Biophotons emitted from the center of fingernails and fingerprints from living humans were measured for twenty healthy subjects. Significantly more biophotons were emitted from fingernail than fingerprint for each finger of every subject. For thumb the average biophoton emission rate was 23.0 +/- 4.5 counts per second, and 17.2 +/- 2.0 counts per second from the nail, and print, respectively. There is a slight tendency that the little finger emits less than the other fingers. But some fingers emit far stronger than others, and it depends upon each individual subject which finger emits strongest. (T.J. Kim, K.W. Nam, H.S. Shin, S.M. Lee, J.S. Yang, K.S. Soh, "Biophoton Emission from Fingernails and Fingerprints of Living Human Subjects", Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics Research, 27 , pp.85-94, Cognizant Communication Corp., 2002,2002)
Thermal stimulation with moxa leads the human body to radiate biophotons. As the biophoton emission intensifies after moxa, an attempt is made to detect changes in the human body. After moxa, the photon numbers and the body temperature are observed as a time chart before and after healing in Okada's manner. In contrast with the decreasing photon number, the temperature increases during the healing. (Tsutomu YANAGAWA, Hiroyuki SAKAGUCHI, Masahiro UENO and Kazuo NITTA, Life Science Labs., "Sustaining Faculty of Living Functions and Its Biophoton Observation", MOA Health Science Foundation, Tokyo, Japan)
Left-right biophoton asymmetry from the palm and the dorsum of hands from 7 Korean hemiparesis patients were studied. There is a strong tendency that the left-hemiparesis patients emit more biophotons from the right than the left hands, while the right-hemiparesis patient emits more from the left hand. Acupuncture treatment reduces dramatically the left-right asymmetry of biophoton emission rates. (Left-right asymmetry of biophoton emission from hemiparesis patients, Hyun-Hee Jung, Won-Myung Woo, Joon-Mo Yang, Chunho Choi, Jonghan Lee, Gilwon Yoon, Jong S. Yang, Sungmuk Lee & Kwang-Sup Soh, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, May 2003, pp. 457-472 )
It turned out that biophoton emission reflects, (i) the left-right symmetry of the human body; (ii) biological rhythms such as 14 days, 1 month, 3 months and 9 months; (iii) disease in terms of broken symmetry between left and right side; and (iv) light channels in the body, which regulate energy and information transfer between different parts. (Biophoton emission of human body, S Cohen & F A Popp, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, May 2003, pp. 446-451 )